Maxwell writes to a kafka topic named "maxwell" by default. It can be static, e.g. 'maxwell', or dynamic, e.g. namespace_%{database}_%{table}. In the latter case 'database' and 'table' will be replaced with the values for the row being processed. This can be changed with the kafka_topic option.

Client version

By default, maxwell uses the kafka library. The --kafka_version flag lets you choose an alternate library version:,,, or This flag is only available on the command line.

ERROR Sender - Uncaught error in kafka producer I/O thread:
SchemaException: Error reading field 'throttle_time_ms': java.nio.BufferUnderflowException

Extended options

Any options given to Maxwell that are prefixed with kafka. will be passed directly into the Kafka producer configuration (with kafka. stripped off). We use the "new producer" configuration, as described here: http://kafka.apache.org/documentation.html#newproducerconfigs

Performant properties

These properties would give high throughput performance.

kafka.acks = 1
kafka.compression.type = snappy

At-least-once properties

For at-least-once delivery, you will want something more like:

kafka.acks = all
kafka.retries = 5 # or some larger number

And you will also want to set min.insync.replicas on Maxwell's output topic.

Snappy compression

If Maxwell is run in a container and snappy compression is enabled,


should be added to the $JAVA_OPTS.


Maxwell generates keys for its Kafka messages based upon a mysql row's primary key in JSON format:

{ "database":"test_tb","table":"test_tbl","pk.id":4,"pk.part2":"hello"}

This key is designed to co-operate with Kafka's log compaction, which will save the last-known value for a key, allowing Maxwell's Kafka stream to retain the last-known value for a row and act as a source of truth.

The JSON-hash based key format is tricky to regenerate in a stable fashion. If you have an application in which you need to parse and re-generate keys, it's advised you enable --kafka_key_format=array, which will generate kafka keys that can be parsed and re-output byte-for-byte.


Both Kafka and AWS Kinesis support the notion of partitioned streams. Partitioning is controlled by producer_partition_by, which gives you the option to split your stream by database, table, primary key, or column data. How you choose to partition will influence the consumers of the maxwell stream. A good rule of thumb is to use the finest-grained partition scheme possible given serialization constraints.

To partition by column data, you must set both:

When partitioning by column Maxwell will treat the values for the specified columns as strings, concatenate them and use that value to partition the data.

Kafka partitioning

A binlog event's partition is determined by the selected hash function and hash string as follows


The HASH_FUNCTION is either java's hashCode or murmurhash3. The default HASH_FUNCTION is hashCode. Murmurhash3 may be set with the kafka_partition_hash option. The seed value for the murmurhash function is hardcoded to 25342 in the MaxwellKafkaPartitioner class.

The HASH_STRING may be (database, table, primary_key, column). The default HASH_STRING is the database. The partitioning field can be configured using the producer_partition_by option.

Maxwell will discover the number of partitions in its kafka topic upon boot. This means that you should pre-create your kafka topics, and with at least as many partitions as you have logical databases:

bin/kafka-topics.sh --zookeeper ZK_HOST:2181 --create \
                    --topic maxwell --partitions 20 --replication-factor 2



AWS Credentials

You will need to obtain an IAM user that has the following permissions for the stream you are planning on producing to:

See the AWS docs for the latest examples on which permissions are needed.

The producer uses the DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain class to gain aws credentials. See the AWS docs on how to setup the IAM user with the Default Credential Provider Chain.


Set the output stream in config.properties by setting the kinesis_stream property.

The producer uses the KPL (Kinesis Producer Library) and uses the KPL built in configurations. Copy kinesis-producer-library.properties.example to kinesis-producer-library.properties and configure the properties file to your needs.

You are required to configure the region. For example:

# set explicitly
# or set with an environment variable

By default, the KPL implements record aggregation, which usually increases producer throughput by allowing you to increase the number of records sent per API call. However, aggregated records are encoded differently (using Google Protocol Buffers) than records that are not aggregated. Therefore, if you are not using the KCL (Kinesis Client Library) to consume records (for example, you are using AWS Lambda) you will need to either disaggregate the records in your consumer (for example, by using the AWS Kinesis Aggregation library), or disable record aggregation in your kinesis-producer-library.properties configuration.

To disable aggregation, add the following to your configuration:


Remember: if you disable record aggregation, you will lose the benefit of potentially greater producer throughput.


AWS Credentials

You will need to obtain an IAM user that has the permission to access the SQS service. The SQS producer also uses DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain to get AWS credentials.

See the AWS docs on how to setup the IAM user with the Default Credential Provider Chain.

In case you need to set up a different region also along with credentials then default one, see the AWS docs.


Set the output queue in the config.properties by setting the sqs_queue_uri property to full SQS queue uri from AWS console.

The producer uses the AWS SQS SDK.

Google Cloud Pub/Sub

In order to publish to Google Cloud Pub/Sub, you will need to obtain an IAM service account that has been granted the roles/pubsub.publisher role.

See the Google Cloud Platform docs for the latest examples of which permissions are needed, as well as how to properly configure service accounts.

Set the output stream in config.properties by setting the pubsub_project_id and pubsub_topic properties. Optionally configure a dedicated output topic for DDL updates by setting the ddl_pubsub_topic property.

The producer uses the Google Cloud Java Library for Pub/Sub and uses its built-in configurations.


To produce messages to RabbitMQ, you will need to specify a host in config.properties with rabbitmq_host. This is the only required property, everything else falls back to a sane default.

The remaining configurable properties are: - rabbitmq_user - defaults to guest - rabbitmq_pass - defaults to guest - rabbitmq_virtual_host - defaults to / - rabbitmq_exchange - defaults to maxwell - rabbitmq_exchange_type - defaults to fanout - rabbitmq_exchange_durable - defaults to false - rabbitmq_exchange_autodelete - defaults to false - rabbitmq_routing_key_template - defaults to %db%.%table% - This config controls the routing key, where %db% and %table% are placeholders that will be substituted at runtime - rabbitmq_message_persistent - defaults to false - rabbitmq_declare_exchange - defaults to true

For more details on these options, you are encouraged to the read official RabbitMQ documentation here: https://www.rabbitmq.com/documentation.html


Set the output stream in config.properties by setting the redis_pub_channel property for redis_type = pubsub or set the redis_list_key property when using redis_type = lpush.

Other configurable properties are:

Custom Producer

If none of the producers packaged with Maxwell meet your requirements, a custom producer can be added at runtime. The producer is responsible for processing the raw database rows. Note that your producer may receive DDL and heartbeat rows as well, but your producer can easily filter them out (see example).

In order to register your custom producer, you must implement the ProducerFactory interface, which is responsible for creating your custom AbstractProducer. Next, set the custom_producer.factory configuration property to your ProducerFactory's fully qualified class name. Then add the custom ProducerFactory and all its dependencies to the $MAXWELL_HOME/lib directory.

Your custom producer will likely require configuration properties as well. For that, use the custom_producer.* property namespace. Those properties will be exposed to your producer via MaxwellConfig.customProducerProperties.

Custom producer factory and producer examples can be found here: https://github.com/zendesk/maxwell/tree/master/src/example/com/zendesk/maxwell/example/producerfactory